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Number of pages: 5
Reference number: 1656/2/1/175
Catalogue ID: 104767
Subject: RescuePolishSchools
Summary:

This report is a sworn statement in which the author tells what he and his family experienced in Hamburg from 1933 - 1939. Later, his parents were deported to Poland, after he and his brother were taken to England with a Kindertransport.

The father was forced to give up one business after the other to Nazis, as well as his lodgings. After a car accident, in which he was gravely injured, he went to court, won the case, but did not get a compensation; the bill amounting to RM 2000 was paid by a friend of his. From September to November 1938 he was in Buchenwald.

The report describes the school surrounded by SS; some children beaten; the author and his brother were rescued by a non-Jewish lady and teachers were arrested. Two SS-men smashing up a synagogue fell to their deaths.

In 1947, the two brothers were naturalised in England and served subsequently five years each in the British Army, in Korea and Malaysia respectively. Unable to find the jobs which would secure their future, they are trying to save the money for emigration to Canada.

Number of pages: 9
Reference number: 1656/2/2/1165
Catalogue ID: 104804
Subject: SchoolsChildrenNovember Pogrom
Summary: A former headmistress of a training college for teachers at infant schools reports on her experiences in Vienna under the Nazi régime until her emigration with her husband (in January 1939) to Shanghai, China, where a cousin of hers, a refugee from the Russian revolution, had settled many years previously (p.4-8). She soon got a job at a school for refugee children and infants, which developed rapidly (p.4-5). The pupils would hail from any kind of social background from big towns and small villages in China, India, Russia, Germany, C.S.R., Austria, Hungary; they were all very nervous, but would go on very well with each other (p.7-8). Dangerous climate; bombardments, no shelters, in 1945 and 1946; Japanese terror; persecutors Wiedemann, Goya (p.5).

Return to Europe with the help of the authorities, the Committee of Refugees (p.4, 7) and the Austrian Residents Association (p.7); bad conditions (p.6); Red Cross at Austrian frontier (p.7). Arrival in Vienna, on 13 February 1947; new job as a teacher.

Number of pages: 6
Reference number: 1656/3/5/23
Catalogue ID: 105528
Subject: SchoolsChildrenCzech
Summary:

Miss X. was living with her Aryan mother and Nazi stepfather in Breslau; had, on the whole, no unpleasant personal experiences. School (1941 last year of Abiturium for “Non-Aryans”). “Pflichtjahr” (instead of six months' Labour Service). Ration cards had to be fetched from a special centre for every household with a non-Aryan, which was compromising. She had to leave a position as a shop assistant in a music shop because it would bring her into contact with the general public.

In forced labour camp: Organisation Todt; Unternehmen Berthold; unpleasant circumstances; the author states cynical outlook on sexual behavior. She had a chance of marrying an Aryan Czech, i.e. “a man of inferior nationality” since her father had not received a University education; thus there was deemed to be little risk of her transmitting “Jewish intelligence” to her children.

Miss X. is now living in London with her Jewish father.

Number of pages: 10
Reference number: 1656/3/5/1185
Catalogue ID: 105578
Subject: ChildrenKindertransportMixed marriage
Summary:

The daughter of a Jewish dental surgeon and his Christian wife reports on her experiences as a child in Berlin, during the time of the Nazi persecution.

Born in 1927, she attended a common primary school until the Kristallnacht, in November 1938. After ½ year in a Jewish school in 1939, she went to a Mischlings school which later was prohibited; she could then attend a special form at another Jewish school but was excused most of the time, as she had to help her parents in the surgery as well as in the household. A renewed application for 'Arisierung' was turned down, in 1940, and she had to leave school for good.

The Jewish Labour Exchange, Fontanestrasse (p.2) sent her to work at Martin Michalski, a workshop for uniforms, where she was paid RM 0, 30 per hour at 15 and RM 0,35 at 16 and 17. No bad treatment, but for occasionally rather risky errands (p.2-4). Extremely exciting summons; Kommissar Wenzel (p.4-8).

Here, the recorder has inserted a short report on the interviewee's mother (p.7-8). On 3 February 1945, the family's home was completely bombed out. After the War, the young girl attended a commercial course and later became employed at an office of the Jewish community in Berlin. In September 1948, she left the Evangelical Community and, in 1949, rejoined the Jewish Community (p.9).

Number of pages: 10
Reference number: 1656/3/5/1186
Catalogue ID: 105579
Subject: Mixed marriageChildrenKindertransport
Summary:

The author, a Jewish dermatologist, has been living with his Christian wife in East Berlin for about 25 years. He had served in the First World War for a short time, after his brother had been killed in action. From April 1933, he was no longer qualified to work for the National Health Insurance (p.1) and had to move out of his flat. In the year 1938 he became “Judenbehandler“, i.e. he got permission to attend [illegible] Jews. His sister was deported and never heard of again, his mother fell ill of persecution mania and finally died of hunger in Theresienstadt (p.2); the beautiful furniture at her flat was stolen by an official who had been sent there on duty (p.6).

When the Gestapo turned up to arrest the author, he could hide in time. The men asked for his six year old son to take him instead of his father, but he was at school. Several times, the doctor had a narrow escape; at such an occasion, SS-men who were looking for deserters and Jews murdered fourteen Jews (p.3-4).

At a collection of arms, an officer pocketed the pistol Mrs. H. was delivering to the Police (p.5). Another time, she was summoned to the Police-Station and urged to divorce her husband; she refused in a wise and determined way (p.6).

Some Christian patients: Herr Frank, a decent man, though a member of the NSDAP (p.6-7); another patient became an antisemite after he had prospered through the situation; a well-off factory-owner who would pay most generously for the smallest advice (p.7).

Death of a lame old spinster who had served her Führer fanatically (p.7-8). The house in which the old maid voluntarily perished burnt down, and the doctor who had lived there, too, with his family, lost all their belongings. After the War, they started a new life and the doctor is still busy.

Number of pages: 7
Reference number: 1656/3/6/109
Catalogue ID: 105585
Subject: Schools
Summary:

Dr. Elkan describes the friendliness of some rather prominent German. “Aryans” towards their Jewish fellow-citizens between 1933 - 1937. Among them Mr Funk (Funk A.G.); Mrs Heinzmann, former headmistress of a public school for girls (Duesseldorf); Dr. Lehr, Lord Mayor of Duesseldorf; Prof. Loos, director of the Dental Institute Carolinum, Frankfurt am Main, Generaldirektor Poensgen of the “Vereinigte Stahlwerke”. Interesting Photocopy of a letter (10 May 1935) from “Freiherr von Fritsch” (later “Chef der Heeresleitung”) to Dr. Elkan is added, whom Dr. Elkan got to know during the First World War with the 47 Reserved Division when he was head of the Dental Department. Also a photocopy of a letter from Count Helldorf, father of the notorious “Graf Helldorf”, former Polizeipraesident of Berlin (who was later hanged by the Nazis).

Only with the help of “Wirtschaftsberater” Dr. Schneider, Dr. Elkan was able to escape the chicanes of the Duesseldorfer Finanzamt and perform his emigration in 1937 sucessfully. Because of his helpful attitude to Jews Dr. Schneider later was put in a concentration camp.

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