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Number of pages: 14
Reference number: 1656/1/4/343
Catalogue ID: 104724
Subject: RescueSuicideCatholics

An appreciation of Dr. Paul Eppstein (his work and his character) who has been acting as a liaison officer between the Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland and the Gestapo, and at the same time was in charge of the training of Jewish youth for new professions. He was deported in January 1943 to Theresienstadt where he became “Judenaeltester”. He was shot at the “Kleine Festung” on 27 September 1943.

Number of pages: 5
Reference number: 1656/2/1/175
Catalogue ID: 104767
Subject: RescuePolishSchools

This report is a sworn statement in which the author tells what he and his family experienced in Hamburg from 1933 - 1939. Later, his parents were deported to Poland, after he and his brother were taken to England with a Kindertransport.

The father was forced to give up one business after the other to Nazis, as well as his lodgings. After a car accident, in which he was gravely injured, he went to court, won the case, but did not get a compensation; the bill amounting to RM 2000 was paid by a friend of his. From September to November 1938 he was in Buchenwald.

The report describes the school surrounded by SS; some children beaten; the author and his brother were rescued by a non-Jewish lady and teachers were arrested. Two SS-men smashing up a synagogue fell to their deaths.

In 1947, the two brothers were naturalised in England and served subsequently five years each in the British Army, in Korea and Malaysia respectively. Unable to find the jobs which would secure their future, they are trying to save the money for emigration to Canada.

Number of pages: 5
Reference number: 1656/2/4/93
Catalogue ID: 104855
Subject: RescueNovember PogromDachau (concentration camp)

Dr. Flehinger gives an account of the happenings in Baden-Baden on 10 November 1938, rounding up of Jewish men, their ill-treatment and final deportation to Dachau. He also mentions the synagogue fire. Dr. Flehinger particularly wishes to put on record the name of Leo Wohleb as a righteous man and champion of human rights; he was headmaster of a grammar school.

Number of pages: 47
Reference number: 1656/2/5/756
Catalogue ID: 104900
Subject: AntisemitismRescueNovember Pogrom

Autobiographical sketch, completed in England at some time during the last war. Although the Manuscript is not divided into chapters, the following main parts may be distinguished:

I. The author's family background and youth, his life as a student of Law, and his experiences as a German judge (p.1-7). This introductory part contains some interesting observations on pre-Nazi antisemitism, especially in academic and professional circles.

II. The author's work as a functionary of the “Centralverein” and the “Reichsvertretung” (p.7-30). With intimate knowledge and rather unusual objectivity he describes the gradual elimination of Jews from German national life, the widely differing attitudes of individual German civil servants, and the reactions within the German population. He was particularly concerned with the defence of the rights of Jewish doctors (p.9-16) and the fight against anti-Jewish economic measures by individual Nazi agencies in excess of the existing laws. The dissolution of the B'nai B'rith lodges, of which the author was a prominent member, is described on pages 22-26. The demolition of synagogues and Jewish cemeteries, before the pogrom of November 1938, in Hesse and Upper Silesia is mentioned on page 27.

III. The author's arrest during the November Pogrom and his imprisonment in the concentration camp Sachsenhausen, from which he was released on 16 December 1938.

Number of pages: 4
Reference number: 1656/2/6/1133
Catalogue ID: 104926
Subject: CatholicsRescueAuschwitz main camp (concentration camp)

An interview with a doctor’s widow who had lived in comfortable circumstances in Vienna, until the Nazis took over. After sending her only child, a ten-year-old daughter, to a well-off Dutchman and his Jewish wife in Holland, she tried in vain to get an opportunity of emigrating with her husband. At last, she agreed to take a domestic job in an English household, offered her by a Catholic organisation, because she was told about a chance, that her husband could follow her there. She had been a most efficient secretary, but at her new job she soon knew that she could not cope with the work in the farmer’s big household at Eversham, Worcestershire. Much worse, she discovered to be pregnant after a week’s time. In her despair, she wrote for help to the couple in Holland who were very happy with her child and had offered her their assistance in case of need; she was deeply disappointed and told her plight to her employers and from that moment on gratefully enjoyed their unlimited kindliness and generosity until well after the time of her delivery of a still-born child.

All the time during the War, she tried in vain to hear from her child or her husband. In 1945, she traced the Dutch couple and received the news, that the lady, before going into hiding herself, had taken her daughter to a Jewish children's home, from where she together with all other children had been sent to Auschwitz and gassed.

Later, she learned by chance, that her husband had served as a doctor at Theresienstadt. Once he had to accompany a transport to Auschwitz, and as an exception had returned, but he did not come back, the second time.

Number of pages: 50
Reference number: 1656/3/4/197
Catalogue ID: 105322
Subject: RescueResistanceSynagogues

A personal report by Heinz Landwirth, formerly from Vienna, who came with a children's transport to Holland in December 1938. He stayed first in a Children's Home, later with families. In 1941 he made Youth Aliyah to the Hachscharah-Farm Gouda. In 1942 the persecution of Jews became more and more threatening. This report includes details of an escape of a group of 25 young Zionists to Israel through Spain!. Amsterdam assumed an aspect of decay, inhibition and terror. Final razzia, including all Jews, on 20 June 1943. Mr Landwirth, meanwhile was 16-years-old, and went underground using false documents supplied by Hechaluz (Kurt Reilinger Gideon Drach) working as a farm hand with Jan Kuperus. In 1943 - via Belgium - he became known as the ‘Dutch’ boatsman John Gerrit Overbeck on one of the German Rhine barges.

Number of pages: 6
Reference number: 1656/3/4/377
Catalogue ID: 105330
Subject: RescueEscapees

Mrs Milman, née Büchler, was born in 1928 in Puchow in Czechoslovakia. In 1942 both her brothers were deported. Livia herself went into hiding, escaping from place to place, and on several occasions living in the open forest. Once she was given refuge by the wife of a Policeman, though without the latter’s knowledge.

In Modva she attended a Protestant girl’s boarding school, which had taken on a group of converted Jewish girls. Many of these were taken away by the SD in 1944.

Mrs Milman, together with 60 other Jews was hidden by farmers in a forest near Piestany until the end of the war.

Number of pages: 7
Reference number: 1656/3/4/393
Catalogue ID: 105333
Subject: RescueBergen-Belsen (concentration camp)Auschwitz-Birkenau (concentration and...

Mrs Rieger's child was taken from a Jewish home in Berlin and put to death; this was about 1939. Mrs Rieger was drafted for forced labour and worked at the firm of “Auto Kabel”, where she was treated very kindly by the Lady Foreman, a Mrs Brand, as well as by the head of the firm.

In 1943 she went to live in hiding, working illegally for the film author Axel Eggebrecht.

Finally she was arrested and taken first to Auschwitz, then to Bergen Belsen, and finally to Salzwedel. From the last named camp she was liberated by the Americans.

Number of pages: 16
Reference number: 1656/3/4/458
Catalogue ID: 105337
Subject: AntisemitismDenunciationsMixed marriage

Personal report. When the author was about ten years old, the family would be blackmailed by an SA-man, so that they moved into another district to escape from him. In the Margareten-Lyzeum, Ifflandstrasse, attended by 14 Jewish girls, the atmosphere was so antisemitic, that she left the school after some months. She attended a Jewish school until October 1937, and as she hoped to emigrate, went in for dressmaking. Compulsory work: Moeller, Children's Coats, Schützenstrasse (p.2). With the Fabrikaktion, her parents were deported to Auschwitz; on the way, her mother threw a postcard out of the wagon, which was sent to Berlin in an envelope with the words added: “Eine Frau, die noch menschlich denkt”. There came no further sign of life from them; but her brother, an electrician, survived the camp (p.3).

In February 1943, the author went into hiding; she lived with Turkish Jews whose daughter was her friend. Through a Jewish informer, Rechtsanwalt Jacob, they were found out; during the house-search, the Jewish informer Behrend fell in love with the author which circumstance she utilised to escape from the Gestapo as well as from him. Through her customer Lola Alexander she found refuge in the family Daene's house at Conradshöhe, where Miss Alexander and other Jews already lived illegally, in August 1943 (p.3-5). She started to manage the Dänes’ lending library in Moabit and would meet her friend on their way home at the S-Bahn Station Gesundbrunnen, every night. There, on 8 August 1944, she suddenly felt her arm grasped by the informer Behrend. She threw herself under an incoming train and was rescued with her foot smashed (p.6). She lay in the Jewish Hospital dangerously ill, for many months; Dr. Lustig rescued her from being sent to Auschwitz through a very long treatment instead of an amputation (p.7-8). Fever and starvation; living in the cellar. When all patients were released, on 29 April, she was too weak to leave, weighing 31kg, and had to stay on until 30 June 1945, then protected and assisted efficiently by the Russians.

Number of pages: 18
Reference number: 1656/3/4/460
Catalogue ID: 105339
Subject: DeportationsRescuePrisoners of war

Report by a Jewish woman who with her small child lived illegally in Germany from 27 February 1943, the day of mass arrests of Jews in Berlin.

At first, she, her husband and her child lived underground in Berlin with the aid of non-Jewish friends. In February 1944 she succeeded in obtaining false papers and moved with her child to Lippinck in Western Prussia (Polish Corridor), where she gained the trust of Nazi Party and Security Police members. She had contact with Polish Partisans of the “Tuchler Heide” and was able to inform them about the Security Police plans for partisan warfare. Once she cooperated in helping escaped British Prisoners of war. In February 1945 she succeeded in returning to Berlin, where her husband had lived illegally all the time. He narrowly escaped being shot as a deserter.

Number of pages: 12
Reference number: 1656/3/4/785
Catalogue ID: 105359
Subject: EscapeesRescue

A report by the daughter of a Jewish diamond cutter in Amsterdam. She went underground in July, 1942, after she had been ordered to report for a transport to Westerbork. At first she stayed for short spells with various people, then a neighbour took her in for four months and a half, while her parents, who were later arrested and deported (on 31 January 1944), brought her food. But the position became too dangerous, and comrades of the socialist youth organisation, of which she had been a member, found her a place with a teacher's family in Winterwjk near the German frontier. There she remained until the end of the war. Her whole family with the exception of one brother of her father's, who had lived in France, perished.

Number of pages: 10
Reference number: 1656/3/4/895
Catalogue ID: 105374
Subject: EscapeesMass killingsRescue

An account in the first person of the author and her family’s experiences during the last year of war in Hungary. In March 1944, on arrival of German troops to occupy Hungary, the persecution of Jews intensified. Her husband was called up for forced labour and the author and her child, aged four, were left alone. In October 1944, when the Fascists (Arrow-Cross Movement) took over the government, the author made use of false papers (p.4), procured in the preceding February (p.1), and for some weeks lived as “Aryan” refugee. Later she and her husband procured Swedish Schutzpaesse's (p. 8) and lived with other Jews in the so-called Swedish Schutzhaus (p.8) until the Russians conquered this part of the city in January 1945. A vivid account of experiences, particularly of the period when the author lived an “illegal” life.

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