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Number of pages: 8
Reference number: 1656/2/1/133
Catalogue ID: 104766
Subject: Children
Summary:

Miss Nelly Wolffheim, formerly a well-known nursery teacher and child’s psychologist in Berlin, started after 1933 to train Jewish girls in these subjects, holding seminars, firstly illegal, later officially recognised as “Umschulungslehrgaenge” of the Jewish Community.

Number of pages: 5
Reference number: 1656/2/1/175
Catalogue ID: 104767
Subject: RescuePolishSchools
Summary:

This report is a sworn statement in which the author tells what he and his family experienced in Hamburg from 1933 - 1939. Later, his parents were deported to Poland, after he and his brother were taken to England with a Kindertransport.

The father was forced to give up one business after the other to Nazis, as well as his lodgings. After a car accident, in which he was gravely injured, he went to court, won the case, but did not get a compensation; the bill amounting to RM 2000 was paid by a friend of his. From September to November 1938 he was in Buchenwald.

The report describes the school surrounded by SS; some children beaten; the author and his brother were rescued by a non-Jewish lady and teachers were arrested. Two SS-men smashing up a synagogue fell to their deaths.

In 1947, the two brothers were naturalised in England and served subsequently five years each in the British Army, in Korea and Malaysia respectively. Unable to find the jobs which would secure their future, they are trying to save the money for emigration to Canada.

Number of pages: 1
Reference number: 1656/2/2/96
Catalogue ID: 104788
Summary:

A report by Gertrud Ehrenwerth on her experiences as a general social worker in Stettin up to 1934 and later as a Jewish social worker in Neu-Isenburg, Heim des Juedischen Frauenbundes.

A rather dubious letter from the head of the Youth Welfare Department of the municipality is added, praising Miss Ehrenwerth's merits and saying at the same time: “Es sind Leute gegangen, die man ganz gerne gehen sah......”
Number of pages: 9
Reference number: 1656/2/2/1165
Catalogue ID: 104804
Subject: SchoolsChildrenNovember Pogrom
Summary: A former headmistress of a training college for teachers at infant schools reports on her experiences in Vienna under the Nazi régime until her emigration with her husband (in January 1939) to Shanghai, China, where a cousin of hers, a refugee from the Russian revolution, had settled many years previously (p.4-8). She soon got a job at a school for refugee children and infants, which developed rapidly (p.4-5). The pupils would hail from any kind of social background from big towns and small villages in China, India, Russia, Germany, C.S.R., Austria, Hungary; they were all very nervous, but would go on very well with each other (p.7-8). Dangerous climate; bombardments, no shelters, in 1945 and 1946; Japanese terror; persecutors Wiedemann, Goya (p.5).

Return to Europe with the help of the authorities, the Committee of Refugees (p.4, 7) and the Austrian Residents Association (p.7); bad conditions (p.6); Red Cross at Austrian frontier (p.7). Arrival in Vienna, on 13 February 1947; new job as a teacher.

Number of pages: 5
Reference number: 1656/2/4/93
Catalogue ID: 104855
Subject: RescueNovember PogromDachau (concentration camp)
Summary:

Dr. Flehinger gives an account of the happenings in Baden-Baden on 10 November 1938, rounding up of Jewish men, their ill-treatment and final deportation to Dachau. He also mentions the synagogue fire. Dr. Flehinger particularly wishes to put on record the name of Leo Wohleb as a righteous man and champion of human rights; he was headmaster of a grammar school.

Number of pages: 18
Reference number: 1656/2/5/178
Catalogue ID: 104885
Subject: Children
Summary:

Mr M. Mitzman, secretary of the Women's Appeal Committee of the Central British Fund, reports on his impressions during a visit to Germany, Austria and Poland in 1939. He was particularly interested in the work of the Youth Aliyah and the measures taken by other Jewish bodies to prepare the emigration of young people to Palestine. He mentions the Youth Aliyah camp at Gut Winkel (Germany) with over 200 children; the numerous workshops for instruction in handicraft in Vienna; the preparatory camps at Mossbrunn and near the Semmering (Austria); and the agricultural training establishments in Poland.

The author states that in Poland even then many Jewish shops were boycotted, and that the Jewish population there was, on the whole, very poor.

Number of pages: 4
Reference number: 1656/2/5/650
Catalogue ID: 104899
Summary:

The report deals with the different training centres (“Unschichtungskurse”) which were set up in Frankfurt am Main, immediately after the boycott. Already four weeks thereafter the “Hilfsverein der Deutschen Juden” and the Jewish Community, Frankfurt were able to open training centres in agriculture, horticulture and instructional workshops for technicians, locksmiths, mechanics of precision, etc., in connection with regular courses in theoretical subjects. Soon these courses were attended by Jewish youth from all parts of Southern Germany, the Rhineland & Hesse. Hostels had to be established where they could stay & live a community life. The “Haushaltungsschule”, Koenigswarterstrasse (School for Domestic Science) had considerably to be extended and a huge capital invested to meet the steadily growing financial claims between 1933 - 1939.

Number of pages: 47
Reference number: 1656/2/5/756
Catalogue ID: 104900
Subject: AntisemitismRescueNovember Pogrom
Summary:

Autobiographical sketch, completed in England at some time during the last war. Although the Manuscript is not divided into chapters, the following main parts may be distinguished:

I. The author's family background and youth, his life as a student of Law, and his experiences as a German judge (p.1-7). This introductory part contains some interesting observations on pre-Nazi antisemitism, especially in academic and professional circles.

II. The author's work as a functionary of the “Centralverein” and the “Reichsvertretung” (p.7-30). With intimate knowledge and rather unusual objectivity he describes the gradual elimination of Jews from German national life, the widely differing attitudes of individual German civil servants, and the reactions within the German population. He was particularly concerned with the defence of the rights of Jewish doctors (p.9-16) and the fight against anti-Jewish economic measures by individual Nazi agencies in excess of the existing laws. The dissolution of the B'nai B'rith lodges, of which the author was a prominent member, is described on pages 22-26. The demolition of synagogues and Jewish cemeteries, before the pogrom of November 1938, in Hesse and Upper Silesia is mentioned on page 27.

III. The author's arrest during the November Pogrom and his imprisonment in the concentration camp Sachsenhausen, from which he was released on 16 December 1938.

Number of pages: 25
Reference number: 1656/2/6/214
Catalogue ID: 104910
Subject: Gestapo
Summary:

A lecture given by the author on 21 August 1941 in Palestine after his release from the Athlit immigration camp.

The first part of the lecture (p.1-3) describes general conditions and events in Germany, 1938/9 and adds nothing to the known facts. On page 4 the author describes his efforts to obtain migration certificates through an organisation in Basel, and in this connection makes serious allegation against a man called Brender. The next part of the lecture (p.4-10) is concerned with the preparations for “illegal” emigration transports. Prospective emigrants were organised in “Sonder-Hachscharahs” (S.H.) by the Palaestina-Amt, Berlin together with its sub-organisations Hechaluz and Youth Alijah. The emigration was favoured by the German authorities, especially the Gestapo.

The last part (p.11-18) contains a detailed description of the transport of S.H.7, under transport leader Erich Frank, up to the landing in Palestine.

Number of pages: 8
Reference number: 1656/2/6/1130
Catalogue ID: 104925
Subject: Police
Summary:

A report on the return from Spain to Germany at the suggestion of the German embassy in Madrid whose promises of freedom and safety for Jews were instantly broken the German Nazi authorities.

After the riots had started in 1936, the German Embassy organized the return of German citizens with the help of the headmaster of the German School, Schulz, who officially stated on enquiries that there would be no discrimination against Jews and political adversaries of the régime.

At Genova, the passengers’ passports were checked by German officials; some people were told they were not wanted in Germany, but nobody was allowed to alight before the arrival at Munich; the tickets for the journey were distributed free of charge; then forms had to be filled in.

At Munich, the Jewish travellers were separated from the others and taken to the police (p.4-6). Some could choose if they wanted to go to a “Schulungslager” or leave Germany within the next three days. Most had to emigrate without a choice, many within 24 hours; their passports were sent to the respective frontiers. Some Jews who had kept their residence in Germany, at the time of their departure, only some months ago, were allowed to stay, but most of them did not get back their passports, a heavy loss under the circumstances.

Assistance through the Jewish community, Munich (p.6). The permission for providing the money necessary for the departure was procured with difficulty (p.6-7).

Number of pages: 4
Reference number: 1656/2/6/1133
Catalogue ID: 104926
Subject: CatholicsRescueAuschwitz main camp (concentration camp)
Summary:

An interview with a doctor’s widow who had lived in comfortable circumstances in Vienna, until the Nazis took over. After sending her only child, a ten-year-old daughter, to a well-off Dutchman and his Jewish wife in Holland, she tried in vain to get an opportunity of emigrating with her husband. At last, she agreed to take a domestic job in an English household, offered her by a Catholic organisation, because she was told about a chance, that her husband could follow her there. She had been a most efficient secretary, but at her new job she soon knew that she could not cope with the work in the farmer’s big household at Eversham, Worcestershire. Much worse, she discovered to be pregnant after a week’s time. In her despair, she wrote for help to the couple in Holland who were very happy with her child and had offered her their assistance in case of need; she was deeply disappointed and told her plight to her employers and from that moment on gratefully enjoyed their unlimited kindliness and generosity until well after the time of her delivery of a still-born child.

All the time during the War, she tried in vain to hear from her child or her husband. In 1945, she traced the Dutch couple and received the news, that the lady, before going into hiding herself, had taken her daughter to a Jewish children's home, from where she together with all other children had been sent to Auschwitz and gassed.

Later, she learned by chance, that her husband had served as a doctor at Theresienstadt. Once he had to accompany a transport to Auschwitz, and as an exception had returned, but he did not come back, the second time.

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